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Applied Nutrition

Practical Exercise in Exercise Physiology

Introduction:


This practicum is designed to illustrate and measure physiological changes associated with exercise

Students will work in groups of the or four. One student will act as the subject and the other students in the group will take measurements. Measurements will be taken of the subjects pulse breathing rate, body temperature and blood pressure before exercise and following various activities.


Method


1) Resting Measurements

Measure the subjects resting breathing rate by observing her chest movement and counting the number of breaths in one minute. Count the pulse rate and take body temperature with a clinical thermometer. Take three measurements each time. Measure the exact height of the step used.


2) Mild exercise


The subject is to step up one ca. 400 cm step at a rate of 2 step up per second for 2 minutes

Then the same measurements as performed on the resting subject are repeated

The above test (2) should be repeated three time with a 5 min. rest in between.

Measure the exact height of the steps used.


  1. Medium exercise

The subject is to step up three ca. 400 cm steps at a rate of 2 x 3 steps up per second for 2 minutes

Then the same measurements as performed on the resting subject are repeated

The above test (3) should be repeated three time with a 5 in rest in between.

Measure the exact height of the steps used.


  1. Greater exercise

The subject is to step up several ca. 400 cm steps at a rate of X step up per second for 2 minutes

The number of steps to depend on the fitness of the subject

Then the same measurements as performed on the resting subject are repeated

The above test (4) should be repeated three time with a 5 in rest in between.

Measure the exact height of the steps used.


  1. Re-breathing exercise


The subject is to remain seated and to breath in and out of a plastic bag 5 times at a normal breathing rate.

Then the same measurements as performed on the resting subject are repeated

The above test (5) should be repeated three time with a 5 min. rest in between.


Results

Tabulate all measurements using MKS units

Calculate the Energy need to take the steps in each of parts 1 to 4 of the practicum

using the formula E = mgh .

Calculate the power used from E/time

Calculate the number of grams of fat needed to provide the energy in each part.

Using the number of kJ/ gram of fat.

Plot graphs of each physiological parameter against power use.

Questions:


  1. Explain why the physiological measurements change with each part of the experiment.

  2. Explain why pulse and breathing may not indicate a true measure of increased metabolism

  3. Explain why the actual amount of fat used in the exercise is much greater than indicated in the calculations above. How can this vary from one subject to another.

  4. Why was fat used for calculating the amount of nutrient used and not carbohydrate? Under what conditions could this change?

  5. How could respiratory quotient be used to determine which nutrient is being utilized?



Queens College Step Test

Equipment: 41 cm high bench, stopwatch, metronome, pulse monitor (optional).

Target Population: Large groups or those incapable of doing a maximum test.

Advantages: Limited equipment and expertise needed, large groups can be tested at once, test can be self administered.

Disadvantages: Test tends to underpredict the values of fit adults. The test is sometimes unsuitable for short subjects and favours males due to the height of the bench.

Procedure: A three minute step test on a 41 cm bench. Stepping pace:Women 22 steps/min, Men 24 steps/min. Subjects step using a four-step cadence, 'UP-UP-DOWN-DOWN' continuously for 3 minutes and then immediately take their pulse for 15 seconds, 5-20 seconds into recovery. Multiplying this 15 second reading by 4 will give the end beats per minute figure of the subject.

Using the linear relationship between heart rate and oxygen consumption the subjects one minute end test pulse reading can be used to predict a value for their Max VO2.

(Test End Pulse Results in BPM)

Excellent

Good

Average

Fair

Poor



Males under 18yrs

<120

120-130

131-150

151-160

>160




Males over 18 yrs

<110

100-124

125-140

141-155

>155




Females under 18 yrs

<124

124-134

135-154

155-164

>165




Females over 18 yrs

<116

116-130

131-146

147-160

>160