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(1) What are three ways a processor can minimise growth of unwanted organisms in food fermentation?




(2) (a) Why does aeration and mixing cause a difference in the rate of growth yeast during a fermentation process?


(b) Identify three other food fermentations

  1. Give an example of succession that occurs in a food fermentaion.
  2. Give an example of mutualism that occurs in a food fermentaion



    1. What are the seven main steps in organising a HACCP food safety plan.
    2. What is a Critical Control Point
    3. What is the usual criteria when testing child food at the good reciebal step in production.
    4. Identify one method that can be used to monitor a food safety plan





    1. Identify three organic chemical that can be used a food presevatives?
    2. Why are antibiotics restricted for use as food presevatives?
    3. (I) What is the only antibiotics allowed for use as food presevatives?

(II) Why is this antibiotic allowed and not the others


(5) Sodium nitrate is not toxic to bacteria and yet it is added as a preservative in meats products like sausages and bacon.

    1. How does it control bacterial growth
    2. What is the main organism it controls in sausages
    3. When is sulfite used as a preservative


a) What type of radiation is used for food preservation because of its good penetration ability

b) why has radiation not been used much in the food industry even though it is approved as safe by various FDA in the USA



(6) Why do we look for E.coli in food when assaying faecal pollution when it only make up less than 10% of organisms in faeces?






(7) How can we identify particular strains of E. coli?




    1. How can a bacteriophage cause problems for food fermentations?
    2. How can a bacteriophage change the characteristics of a bacteria



(9) Name one advantage of

    1. high temperature and
    2. low temperature pasteurisation?



    1. Name three types of food bore infection that can be contracted from milk.
    2. Which organism determines the time and temperature requirements for milk pasturization
    3. What determines the time and temperature requirements for pasturization of fruit juice


(11) Compare the use of an ElIZA methods to that of a culture method for identifying unknown bacteria form food.