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FOOD and HYGIENE MICROBIOLOGY

THEORY re TEST.

October 2004

(1) What are three things  that a food processor can do so that  the required organism grows faster than other bugs in a food fermentation?

 

 

                                                                                                                                    3

(2)  a)  What is the difference between a primary fermentation and a secondary fermentation in food?

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                    2

b)      In a primary fermentation what is the difference between a primary product and a secondary product? (2)

c)      In a primary fermentation what is the difference between a primary stage of fermentation and a secondary stage of fermentation? (2)

d)      What is an example of a primary product being produced in a secondary stage of fermentation?

                                                                                                                                                                  (1)

             e) Give an example of succession that occurs in a food fermentation.                                                              (2)

 

f)  Give an example of mutualism that occurs in a food fermentation

                                                                                                                                                                        (2)

3) In preparing a Food Safety Plan

a)      What is a Critical Control Point       ?                                                                                              1

 

 

b)      What is the usual criteria when testing child food when it arrives at a production plant?              1

 

 

c)      Identify one method that can be used to monitor a food safety plan                                      1

 

 

                                                                                                                                   

(4) In food preservation

a)      Identify two organic chemical that can be used a food preservatives?                                   2                     

b)      Why are antibiotics restricted for use as food preservatives?                                                1

 

c)      In regard to antibiotics in food

(I)                 What is the only antibiotics allowed for use as a food preservatives?

1

(II)              Why is this antibiotic allowed and not the others?

 

 

1

(5) In meats products like sausages and bacon

a)      Which inorganic compound is  added to salt as a preservative?                                                  1

 

b)      What is the main organism it controls in sausages?                                                         1

 

c)      What is the danger of using too much of this preservative?                                             1

 

 

 

(6) In regard to radiation  used for food preservation

a) What type of radiation is used for its good penetration ability?                                                            1

 

b) Why has radiation not been used much in the food industry even though it is approved by various Food and Drug Authority  in the USA?                                                                                      1

 

 

c) Why does UV have little application for preserving food?                                                      1

 

                                                                                                                                   

(6) Why do we look for E.coli in food when testing for faecal pollution when it only make up less than 10% of organisms in faeces?

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                        2

(7) We all have E.coli in our large intestines so why do we worry about  some particular strains of E. Coli in

food particularly food for venerable groups ?

 

 

                                                                                                                                                            2

(8) In regard to bacteriophage

a)      How can a bacteriophage cause problems for food fermentations?                                 1

 

 

b)      How can a bacteriophage change the characteristics of a bacteria

 

                                                                                                                                                            1

(9) For heat treatment of milk

a)      Identify one advantage of high temperature pasteurisation

 

1

b)      Identify one advantage of low temperature pasteurisation?

                                                                                               

                                                                        1

(10)

a)      Which organism determines the time and temperature requirements for milk pasteurisation

 

1

b)      What determines the time and temperature requirements for pasteurisation of fruit juice

1