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October 2004

(1) What are three things  that a food processor can do so that  the required organism grows faster than other bugs in a food fermentation?




(2)  a)  What is the difference between a primary fermentation and a secondary fermentation in food?





b)      In a primary fermentation what is the difference between a primary product and a secondary product? (2)

c)      In a primary fermentation what is the difference between a primary stage of fermentation and a secondary stage of fermentation? (2)

d)      What is an example of a primary product being produced in a secondary stage of fermentation?


             e) Give an example of succession that occurs in a food fermentation.                                                              (2)


f)  Give an example of mutualism that occurs in a food fermentation


3) In preparing a Food Safety Plan

a)      What is a Critical Control Point       ?                                                                                              1



b)      What is the usual criteria when testing child food when it arrives at a production plant?              1



c)      Identify one method that can be used to monitor a food safety plan                                      1




(4) In food preservation

a)      Identify two organic chemical that can be used a food preservatives?                                   2                     

b)      Why are antibiotics restricted for use as food preservatives?                                                1


c)      In regard to antibiotics in food

(I)                 What is the only antibiotics allowed for use as a food preservatives?


(II)              Why is this antibiotic allowed and not the others?




(5) In meats products like sausages and bacon

a)      Which inorganic compound is  added to salt as a preservative?                                                  1


b)      What is the main organism it controls in sausages?                                                         1


c)      What is the danger of using too much of this preservative?                                             1




(6) In regard to radiation  used for food preservation

a) What type of radiation is used for its good penetration ability?                                                            1


b) Why has radiation not been used much in the food industry even though it is approved by various Food and Drug Authority  in the USA?                                                                                      1



c) Why does UV have little application for preserving food?                                                      1



(6) Why do we look for E.coli in food when testing for faecal pollution when it only make up less than 10% of organisms in faeces?






(7) We all have E.coli in our large intestines so why do we worry about  some particular strains of E. Coli in

food particularly food for venerable groups ?




(8) In regard to bacteriophage

a)      How can a bacteriophage cause problems for food fermentations?                                 1



b)      How can a bacteriophage change the characteristics of a bacteria



(9) For heat treatment of milk

a)      Identify one advantage of high temperature pasteurisation



b)      Identify one advantage of low temperature pasteurisation?




a)      Which organism determines the time and temperature requirements for milk pasteurisation



b)      What determines the time and temperature requirements for pasteurisation of fruit juice