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June 2006

(1) What are three things that a food processor can do so that the required organism grows faster than other bugs in a food fermentation?


(2)  a) what is the difference between a primary fermentation and a secondary fermentation in food?


b)      In a primary fermentation what is the difference between a primary product and a secondary product? (2)

c)      In a primary fermentation what is the difference between a primary stage of fermentation and a secondary stage of fermentation? (2)

d)      What is an example of a primary product being produced in a secondary stage of fermentation?                                                                                                                                     (1)

             e) Give an example of succession that occurs in a food fermentation.                                                              (2)

f)  Give an example of mutualism that occurs in a food fermentation                                                                                                                                (2)

(3) In preparing a Food Safety Plan

a)      What is a Critical Control Point       ?                                                                     

b)      What are the usual criteria when testing child food when it arrives at a production plant?            1

Identify one method that can be used to monitor a food safety plan                                                                                                                                                       

(4) In food preservation

a)      Identify two organic chemical that can be used a food preservatives?                                   2                     

b)      Why are antibiotics restricted for use as food preservatives?                                                1

c)      In regard to antibiotics in food

(I)                 What is the only antibiotic allowed for use as a food preservative?

(II)              Why are this antibiotic allowed and not the others?


(5) In meats products like sausages and bacon

a)      Which inorganic compound is added to salt as a preservative?                          

b)      What is the main organism it controls in sausages?        

c)      What is the danger of using too much of this preservative?                                                                                                                                            (3)

(6)   In regard to radiation  used for food preservation

a) What type of radiation is used for its good penetration ability?                       

b) why has radiation not been used much in the food industry even though it is approved by various Food and Drug Authority in the USA?                          

c) Why does UV have little application for preserving food?                                                                                                                                                      3


(7) Why do we look for E.coli in food when testing for faecal pollution when it only makes up less than 10% of organisms in feces?


(7)   We all have E.coli in our large intestines so why do we worry about some particular strains of E. coli in food particularly food for venerable groups?



(9) In regard to bacteriophage

a)      How can a bacteriophage cause problems for food fermentations?                                 1

b)      How can a bacteriophage change the characteristics of a bacteria


(10) In regard to Fungi

a)      Identify a non-septate fungus that can grow on food

b)      Identify a single celled  fungus that can grow in food

c)      Identify a ascomycete  fungus that can grow on food

d)      Identify a fungus that can grow on food and cause food poisoning

e)      Give an example of a basidiomycte



a)      Which organism determines the time and temperature requirements for milk pasteurisation


b)What determines the time and temperature requirements for pasteurisation of fruit juice


(12)       a) Identify two protozoan parasites likely to be found in food

b)  Identify one type of flat worm parasite likely to be found in meat

c) Identify one type of parasite likely to be found in fish


c) Identify a type of round  worm parasite likely to be found in meat